This is a live bibliography for the history and theory of modern philology. It will continue to be expanded and updated, so we gladly welcome your supplements and suggestions, your comments and corrections. Please make contact with Christian Hoekema ( to do so.

Note: this running bibliography is meant to be selective, not comprehensive, as a tool for further study. The compilation aims for thematic, linguistic, historical, and disciplinary diversity. Sources are listed only once, even when they could fit beneath multiple categories.


The listings appear chronologically, by date of publication. The first two sections (theoretical frameworks for philology and historical accounts of philology) comprise sources written in the 19th century itself as well as subsequent literature from the 20th and 21st centuries. By contrast, the third section (key debates in the history of philology) reflects more recent historiography, without including the original sources from the period.

I. Frameworks

A. 19th century

B. 20th to 21st centuries

II. Histories

A. 19th century

B. 20th to 21st centuries

III. Controversies

A. Homeric Question

B. Creuzer-Streit (Creuzer Affair)

C. Sachphilologie vs. Wortphilologie (August Böckh vs. Gottfried Hermann)

D. Documentary Hypothesis

E. Babel-Bibel-Streit (Babel-Bible Affair)

F. Mahabharata and Bhagavad-gita

G. Roland

H. Beowulf

I. Nibelungenlied

J. The ‘Lachmann’ Method

K. Zend Avesta and Zarathustra

L. Synoptic Problem (coming soon)

M. Eumenidenstreit (coming soon)



Long 19th century  

Schlegel, Friedrich (1797) ‘Zur Philologie [I, II]’, in Fragmente zur Poesie und Literatur, Pt 1, Kritische Friedrich-Schlegel-Ausgabe 16/2, ed. Hans Eichner, 33–81. Paderborn: Schöningh / Zurich: Thomas. 

Wolf, Friedrich August (1807) ‘Darstellung der Althertums-Wissenschaft’, in Museum der Althertums-Wissenschaft 1, pp. 3–145. 

Haase, Friedrich (1847) ‘Philologie’, in Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, vol. 23/3, pp. 374–422. Leipzig: Brockhaus., 

Müller, Lucian (1878) Gedanken über das Studium der classischen Philologie. Supplement zu der wissenschaftlichen Biographie Ritschls. Berlin: Calvary & Co. 

Usener, Hermann (1882) Philologie und Geschichtswissenschaft, Bonn: Max Cohen & Sohn. 

Vollgraff, J. C (1883) L’essence et la méthode de la philologie classique. Discours prononcé à l’ouverture de ses conférences à l’université de Bruxelles. Leiden: Brill. 

Kelley, Francis W. (1908) ‘Is There a Science of Classical Philology?’, Classical Philology 3, no. 4, pp. 369–85. 

Margolis, M. L. (1910) ‘The Scope and Methodology of Biblical Philology’, Jewish Quarterly 

Review 1, pp. 5–41. 

Windisch, Ernst (1917, 1920) Geschichte der Sanskrit-Philologie und Indischen Altertumskunde, 2 vols. Strasbourg: Trübner (vol. 1), Berlin: de Gruyter (vol. 2).  

Boeckh, August (1877) Encyklopädie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften, ed. Ernst Bratuscheck. Leipzig: Teubner. Partially translated by John Paul Pritchard as On Interpretation & Criticism. Norman: University Press of Oklahoma Press, 1968. 


20th and 21st centuries  

Shorey, Paul (1906) ‘Philology and Classical Philology’, The Classical Journal 1, no. 6, pp. 169–96. 

Buck, Carl Darling (1916) ‘Comparative Philology and the Classics’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 47, pp. 65–83. 

Maas, Paul (1927) Textkritik. Leipzig: Teubner. Translated by Barbara Flower as Textual Criticism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958. 

Jaeger, Werner (1936) ‘Classical Philology and Humanism’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 67, pp. 363–74. 

Auerbach, Erich (1952) ‘Philologie der Weltliteratur’, in Weltliterature. Festgabe für Fritz Strich zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. Walter Muschg and Emil Staiger with Watler Henzen, pp. 39–50. Translated by Maire and Edward Said as ‘Philology and Weltliteratur’, The Centennial Review 13 (1969): pp. 1–17.  

McGann, Jerome J. (1985) The Beauty of Inflections: Literary Investigations in Historical Method and Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

de Man, Paul (1986) The Return to Philology’, in The Resistance to Theory. Theory and History of Literature 33. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Bal, Mieke (1987) ‘Virginity: Toward a Feminist Philology’, Dispositio 12, nos. 30–32, pp. 65–82. 

Cerquiglini, Bernard (1989) Éloge de la variante. Histoire critique de la philologie. Paris: Seuil. Translated by B. Wing as In Praise of the Variant: A Critical History of Philology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. 

Culler, Jonathan (1990) ‘Anti-Foundational Philology’, Comparative Literature Studies 27, no. 1: ‘What is Philology’, ed. Jan Ziolkowski, pp. 49–52. 

Johnson, B. (1990) ‘Philology: What is at Stake’, in On Philology, ed. Jan Ziolkowski, 26–30. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 

Patterson, Lee (1990) ‘Introduction: Critical Historicism and Medieval Studies’, in Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380–1530, ed. Lee Patterson, pp. 1–14. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Ziolkowski, Jan, ed. (1990) Comparative Literature Studies 27, no. 1, ‘What is Philology?’. 

Freccero, C. (1994) ‘Practicing Queer Philology with Marguerite de Navarre: Nationalism and the Castigation of Desire’, Queering the Renaissance, ed. Jonathan Goldberg, 107–23. Durham: Duke University Press. 

Patterson, Lee (1994) ‘The Return to Philology’, in The Past and Future of Medieval Studies, ed. John van Engen, pp. 231–44. South Bend: Notre Dame University Press. 

Stackmann, Karl (1994) ‘Neue Philologie?’, in Modernes Mittelalter. Neuer Bilder einer populären Epoche, ed. Joachim Heinzle, pp. 398–427. Frankfurt: Insel. 

Fleischman, Suzanne (1996) ‘Medieval Vernaculars and the Myth of Monoglossia: A Conspiracy of Linguistics and Philology’, in Literary History and the Challenge of Philology: The Legacy of Erich Auerbach, ed. Seth Lerer, pp. 92–104. Figurae: Reading Medieval Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 

Frank, Roberta. (1997) ‘The Unbearable Lightness of Being a Philologist’, Journal of English and Germanic Philology 96, no. 4, pp. 486–513. 

Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W. (1999) ‘Rethinking Historical Criticism’, Biblical Interpretation 7, no. 3, pp. 235–71. 

Becker, A.L. (2000) Beyond Translation: Essays toward a Modern Philology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 

Holquist, Michael. (2000) ‘Forgetting our Nature, Remembering our Mother’, PMLA 115, no. 7: Special Millenium Issue, pp. 1975–77. 

Warren, Michelle R. (2000) ‘Introduction: Relating Philology, Practicing Humanism’, PMLA 125, no. 2, pp. 283–88. 

Culler, Jonathan (2002) ‘The Return to Philology’, Journal of Aesthetic Education 36, no. 3, pp. 12–16. 

Grabes, H. (2002) ‘Philology and the Cultural Turn’, in Changing Philologies, ed. Hans Lauge Hansen, pp. 51–62. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum. 

Lernout, Geert (2002) ‘Genetic Criticism and Philology’, Text 14, pp. 53–75. 

Gumbrecht, Hans Ulrich (2003) The Powers of Philology: Dynamics of Textual Scholarship (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 

Restall, Matthew (2003) ‘A History of the New Philology and the New Philology in History’, Latin American Research Review 38, no. 1, pp. 113–34. 

Said, Edward (2004) ‘The Return to Philology’, in Humanism and Democratic Criticism, pp. 57–84. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Gurd, Sean Alexander (2005) Iphigenias at Aulis: Textual Multiplicity, Radical Philology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 

Ziolkowski, Jan M. (2005) ‘Metaphilology’, Journal of English and German Philology 104, no. 2, pp. 239–72. 

Hamacher, Werner (2009) ‘95 Theses on Philology’, Diacritics 39, no. 1, pp. 25–44. Reprinted in Minima Philologica, trans. Catharine Diel and Jason Groves. New York: Fordham University Press, 2015. 

Harpham, Geoffrey Galt (2009) ‘Roots, Races, and the Return to Philology’, Representations 106, no. 1, 34–62. 

Pollock, Sheldon (2009) ‘Future Philology? The Fate of a Soft Science in a Hard World’, Critical Inquiry 35, no. 4, pp. 931–61. 

Schwindt, Jürgen Paul, ed. (2009) Was ist eine philologische Frage? Beiträge zur Erkundung einer theoretischen Einstellung. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. 

Holquist, Michael (2011) ‘The Place of Philology in an Age of World Literature’, Neohelicon 38, pp. 267–87. 

Messling, Markus (2012) ‘Philologie et racisme: À propos de l’historicité dans les sciences des langues et des textes’, Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 67, no. 1, pp. 153–82. Translated by John Angell as ‘Philology and Racism: On Historicity in the Sciences of Language and Text’, Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales 57, no. 1, 151–80. 

Ferguson, Frances (2013) ‘Philology, Literature, Style’, ELH 80, no. 2, pp. 323–41. 

Hamilton, John T (2013) Security: Politics, Humanity, and the Philology of Care. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Pollock, Sheldon (2014) ‘Philology in Three Dimensions’, postmedieval 5, no. 4: ‘Philology and the Mirage of Time’, pp. 398–413. 

Spiegel, G. (2014) ‘Reflections on The New Philology’, in Rethinking the New Medievalism, ed. R. Howard Bloch, Alison Calhoun, Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet, Joachim Küpper, and Jeanette Patterson, pp. 39–50. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 

Gasparov, M. L., and Michael Wachtel (2015) ‘On Bakhtin, Philosophy, and Philology: Two Essays’, PMLA 130, no. 1, pp. 129–42. 

Pollock, Sheldon, Benjamin A. Elman, and Ku-ming Kevin Chang, eds. (2015) World Philology Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Pollock, Sheldon (2015) ‘Liberating Philology’, Verge: Studies in Global Asias 1, no. 1, pp. 16–21. 

Grafton, Anthony, and Glenn W. Most (2016), ed. Canonical Texts and Scholarly Practices: A Global Comparative Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Dayeh, Islam, ed. ‘Inaugural Volume’, Philological Encounters 1, no. 1. 

Lambert, David Arthur (2016) ‘Refreshing Philology: James Barr, Supersessionism, and the State of Biblical Words’, Biblical Interpretation 24, no. 3, pp. 332–56. 

Masten, Jeffrey (2016) Queer Philologies: Sex, Language, and Affect in Shakespeare’s Time. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Pollock, Sheldon (2016) ‘Philology and Freedom’, Philological Encounters 1, no. 1, pp. 4–30. 

Kay, Sarah (2017) Philology’s Vomit: An Essay on the Immortality and Corporeality of Texts. Mediävistische Perspektiven 5. Zurich: Chronos. 

Lönnroth, Harry, ed. (2017) Philology Matters! Essays on the Art of Reading Slowly. Medieval and Renaissance Authors and Texts 19. Leiden: Brill. 

Hamilton, John T. (2018) Philology of the Flesh. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Gamble, Joseph (2019) ‘Toward a Trans Philology’, Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 19, no. 4, pp. 26–44. 

Gerhard Richter and Ann Smock, ed. (2019) Give the Word: Responses to Werner Hamacher’s ‘95 Theses on Philology’. Stages. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 

Kurtz, Paul Michael (2021) ‘The Philological Apparatus: Science, Text, and Nation in the Nineteenth Century’, Critical Inquiry 47, no. 4, pp. 747–76. 

Dobbs-Allsopp, F.W. (2022) ‘For the Love of Words in The(ir) World(s): Theorizing Biblical Philology’, in Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of P. Kyle McCarter Jr., ed. Christopher Rollston, Susanna Garfein, and Neal H. Wells, pp. 37–66. Ancient Near Eastern Monographs 27. Atlanta: SBL Press. 

Emre, Merve (2023) ‘The Return to Philology’, PMLA 138, no. 1, pp. 171–77. 


Long 19th century 

Haase, Friedrich (1847) Philologie’, in Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, vol. 3.23, Philipp (Weltliche Kurfürsten) – Philosophiana, ed. M.H.E. Meier, pp. 374–422. Leipzig: Brockhaus. 

Dwight, Benhamin W. (1859) Modern Philology: Its Discoveries, History and Influence, with Maps, Tabular Views, and an Index. New York: Barnes & Burr. 

Benfey, Theodor (1869) Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft und orientalischen Philologie in Deutschland seit dem Anfange des 19. Jahrhunderts mit einem Rückblick auf die früheren Zeiten. Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Deutschland. Neuere Zeit 8. Munich: Cotta. 

Bernays, Jacob [878/79] (2008) Geschichte der Klassischen Philologie. Vorlesungsnachschrift von Robert Münzel. Spudasmata 120. Hildesheim: Olms. 

Usener, Hermann (1882) Philologie und Geschichtswissenschaft, Bonn: Max Cohen & Sohn.  

Bursian, Conrad (1883) Geschichte der classischen Philologie in Deutschland von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 19 of Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Deutschland: Neuere Zeit, ed. Historical Commission of the Bavarian Royal Academy of the Sciences. Munich: Oldenbourg. 

Lord Acton, ‘German Schools of History’, English Historical Review 1, no. 1, pp. 7–42. 

Gudeman, Alfred (1894) Outlines of the History of Classical Philology. Boston: Ginn & Co. 

Sandys, John Edwin (1903) A History of Classical Scholarship: From the End of the Sixth Century B.C. to the End of the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Kroll, Wilhelm (1905) Die Altertumswissenschaft im letzten Vierteljahrhundert. Eine Übersicht über ihre Entwicklung in der Zeit von 1875-1900 im Verein mit mehreren Fachgenossen. Leipzig: Reisland. 

Kroll, Wilhelm (1919) Geschichte der klassischen Philologie. Berlin: De Gruyter. 

von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich (1921) Geschichte der Philologie. Leipzig: Teubner. Translated by Alan Harris as History of Classical Scholarship, ed. Hugh Lloyd-Jones. London: Duckworth, 1982. 


20th and 21st Centuries 

Bloomfield, Maurice (1919) ‘Fifty Years of Comparative Philology in America’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 50, pp. 62–83. 

Gerretzen, Jan Gerard (1940) Schola Hemsterhusiana: De Herleving der Grieksche Studiën aan de Nederlandsche Universiteiten in de Achttiende Eeuw van Perizonius tot en met Valckenaer. Nijmegen: Dekker & Van de Vegt. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1955) Contributo alla storia degli studi classici. Storia e Letteratura 47. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1960) Secondo Contributo alla Storia degle Studi Classici. Storia e Letteratura 77. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1966) Terzo contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 108–09. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura.  

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1969) Quarto contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 115. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1975) Quinto contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 135–36. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1980) Sesto contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 149–50. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Knowles, D. (1963) Great Historical Enterprises and Problems in Monastic History. London. 

Flashar, Hellmut, Karlfried Gründer, and Axel Horstmann, eds. (1979). Philologie und Hermeneutik im 19. Jahrhundert. Zur Geschichte und Methodologie der Geisteswissenschaften. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 

Grafton, Anthony (1983) ‘Polyhistor into Philolog: Notes on the Transformation of German Classical Scholarship, 1780–1850’, History of Universities 3, pp. 159–92. 

Goshen-Gottstein, Moshe H. (1983) ‘The Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: Rise, Decline, Rebirth’, Journal of Biblical Literature 102, no. 3, pp. 365–99.  

Grafton, Anthony (1983) Joseph Scaliger: A Study in the History of Classical Scholarship, vol. 1, Textual Criticism and Exegesis. Oxford-Warburg Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Turner, R. Steven (1983) ‘Historicism, Kritik, and the Prussian Professoriate, 1790 to 1840’, in Philologie und Hermeneutik im 19. Jahrhundert, vol. 2, eds. Mayotte Bollack, Heinz Wismann, and Theodor Lindken, pp. 449–89. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1984) Settimo contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 161. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Bloch, R. Howard (1985) ‘Naturalism, Nationalism, Medievalism’, Romanic Review 76, no. 4, pp. 341–60. 

Gumbrecht, Hans Ulrich (1986) ‘“Un Souffle d’Allemagne ayant passé”: Friedrich Diez, Gaston Paris, and the Genesis of National Philologies’, trans. Ulrike Müller-Charles & Joseph J. Duggan, Romance Philology 40, no. 1, pp. 1–37. 

Leventhal, Robert S. (1986) ‘The Emergence of Philological Discourse in the German States, 1770–1810’, Isis 77, no. 2, pp. 243–60. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1987) Ottavo contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 169. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Olender, M. (1989) Les langues du paradies. Aryens et Sémites, un couple providentiel. Paris: Seuil. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer as Languages of Paradise: Race, Religion, and Philology in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992. 

Bloch, R. Howard (1991) ‘“Mieux vaut jamais que tard”: Romance, Philology, and Old French Letters’, Representations 36, pp. 64–86. 

Grafton, Anthony (1993) Joseph Scaliger: A Study in the History of Classical Scholarship, vol. 2, Historyical Chronology. Oxford-Warburg Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Grafton, Anthony (1994) Defenders of the Text: The Traditions of Scholarship in an Age of Science, 1450–1800. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1992) Nono contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 180. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

Pollock, Sheldon (1993) ‘Deep Orientalism? Notes on Sanskrit and Power Beyond the Raj’, in Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia, ed. Carol A. Breckenridge and Peter van der Veer, pp. 76–136. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.  

Marchand, Suzanne L. (1996) Down from Olympus. Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Most, Glenn W. (1997) One Hundred Years of Fractiousness: Disciplining Polemics in Nineteenth-Century German Classical Scholarship, Transactions of the American Philological Association 127 pp. 349–61. 

Heschel, Susannah (1998) Abraham Geiger and the Jewish Jesus. Chicago Studies in the History of Judaism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Trautmann-Waller, Céline (1998) Philologie allemande t tradition juive. Le parcours intellectuel de Leopold Zunz. Paris: Le Cerf. 

Porter, James I. (2000) Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 

Barner, Wilfried, and Christoph König, ed. (2001) Jüdische Intellektuelle und die Philologien in Deutschland, 1871–1933. Marbacher Wissenschaftsgeschichte 3. Göttingen: Wallstein. 

Gerli, E. Michael (2001) ‘Inventing the Spanish Middle Ages: Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Spanish Cultural History, and Ideology in Philology’, La corónica 30, no. 1, pp. 111–26. 

Lerer, Seth (2002) Error and the Academic Self: The Scholarly Imagination, Medieval to Modern. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Gildenhard, Ingo/Ruehl, Martin (eds.) (2003) Out of Arcadia: Classics and Politics in Germany in the Age of Burckhardt, Nietzsche and Wilamowitz. London: BICS Supplement 79.  

Leerssen, Joseph Theodoor (2004) ‘Literary Historicism: Romanticism, Philologists, and the Presence of the Past’, Modern Language Quarterly 65, no. 2, pp. 221–43. 

Mathijsen, Marita (2005) ‘The Editing of National Shibboleth Texts: An Historical Ac- count’, Text 17, pp. 223–35. 

Sengupta, I. (2005) From Salon to Discipline: State, University and Indology in Germany, 1821–1914. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung 198. Würzburg: Ergon. 

Sheehan, Jonathan (2005) The Enlightenment Bible: Translation, Scholarship, Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Clark, William (2006) Academic Charisma and the Origins of the Research University. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Rock, Jan (2006) ‘Literary Monuments and Editor’s Jokes: Nationalism and Professionalisation in Editions of Lodewijk van Velthem’s Spiegel Historiael (1727–1906)’, in Texts in Multiple Versions – Histories of Editions, ed. Luigi Giuliani, Herman Brinkman, Geert Lernout, and Marita Mathijsen, pp. 285–313, Variants 5. Leiden: Brill. 

Carhart, Michael (2007) The Science of Culture in Enlightenment Germany. Harvard Historical Studies 159. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Rojinsky, David (2007) ‘Teaching Nationalism, Imperialism and Romance Philology’, La corónica 35, no. 2, pp. 291–301 

Schestag, T. (2007) ‘Philology, Knowledge’, Telos 140, pp. 28–44. 

Benes, Tuska (2008) In Babel’s Shadow: Language, Philology, and the Nation in Nineteenth-Century Germany. Kritik: German Literary Theory and Cultural Studies Series. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 

Gramatzki, Susanne (2008) ‘Kontroverse Konstrukte. Die Erforschung des Mittelalters und die Erfindung der Romanischen Philologie’, Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 38, no. 3, pp. 148–69. 

Messling, M. (2008) ‘Disziplinäres (Über-)Lebenswissen. Zum Sinn einer kritischen Geschichte der Philologie,’ Lendemains. Études comparées sur la France 129, pp. 102–10. 

Rabault-Feuerhahn, Pascale (2008). L’archive des origines. Sanskrit, philologie, anthropologies dans l’Allemagne du XIXe siècle. Bibliothèque franco-allemande. Paris: Eds. du Cerf. Translated by Dominique Bach and Richard Willet as Archives of Origins: Sanskrit, Philology, Anthropology in 19th Century Germany, Kultur- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Studien 9. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2013. 

Marchand, Suzanne L. (2009) German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race, and Scholarship. Publications of the German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

McGetchin, Douglas T. (2009) Indology, Indomania, and Orientalism: Ancient India’s rebirth in Modern Germany. Madison: Farleigh Dickinson University Press. 

Gurd, Sean Alexander, ed. (2010) Philology and its Histories. Columbus: Ohio University Press. 

Legaspi, Michael (2010) The Death of Scripture and the Rise of Biblical Studies. Oxford Studies in Historical Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Grafton, Anthony, and Joanna Weinberg (2011) I Have Always Loved the Holy Tongue: Isaac Casaubon, the Jews, and a Forgotten Chapter in Renaissance Scholarship. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Messling, Markus, and Otto Ette, ed. (2012) Wort Macht Stamm: Rassismus und Determinismus in der Philologie. Munich: Fink. 

Momigliano, Arnaldo (2012) Decimo contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. Storia e Letteratura 252. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura. 

vom Bruch, Rüdiger (2012) Mommsen und Harnack: Die Geburt von Big Science aus den Geisteswissenschaften’, in Theodor Mommsen – Wissenschaft und Politik im 19. Jahrhundert, ed. Alexander Demandt, Andreas Goldtz, and Heinrich Schlange-Schöningen, pp. 121–41. Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Wolf, Johanna (2012) Kontinuität und Wandel der Philologien. Textarchäologische Studien zur Entstehung der Romanischen Philologie im 19. Jahrhundert. Romanica Monacensia 80. Tübingen: Narr. 

Greetham, David (2013) ‘A History of Textual Scholarship’, in Cambridge Companion to Textual Scholarship, ed. Neil Fraistat and Julia Flanders, pp. 16–41. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Momma, Haruko (2013) From Philology to English Studies: Language and Culture in the Nineteenth Century. Studies in English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Porter, James I. (2013) ‘Erich Auerbach’s Earthly (Counter-)Philology’, Digital Philology: A Journal of Medieval Cultures 2, no. 2, pp. 243–65. 

Rocher, Rosane, and Ludo Rocher (2012) The Making of Western Indology: Henry Thomas Colebrooke and the East India Company. Royal Asaitic Society books. London: Routledge. 

Warren, Michelle R. (2013) ‘The Politics of Textual Scholarship’, in Cambridge Companion to Textual Scholarship, pp. 119–33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Paul, Herman (2014). What Is a Scholarly Persona? Ten Theses on Virtues, Skills, and Desires’. History and Theory 53, no. 3, pp. 348–71. 

Turner, James (2014) Philology: The Forgotten Origins of the Modern Humanities. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Daston, Lorraine, and Glenn W. Most (2015) ‘History of Science and History of Philologies’. Isis 106, no. 2, pp. 378–90. 

Gupta, Suman (2015) Philology and Global English Studies: Retracings. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. 

van Kalmthout, Ton, and Huib Zuidervaart (2015) The Practice of Philology in the Nineteenth-Century Netherlands. History of Science and Scholarship in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 

Daston, Lorraine (2016) ‘Authenticity, Autopsia, and Theodor Mommsen’s Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum’, in For the Sake of Learning. Essays in Honor of Anthony Grafton, 2 vols., ed. Ann Blair and Anja-Silvia Goeing, 1:955–73. Leiden: Brill. 

Lin, Yii-Jan (2016) The Erotic Life of Manuscripts: New Testament Textual Criticism and the Biological Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Trautmann-Waller, Céline (2016) La philologie au delà de la Grèce: Exemplarité grecque et totalité de l’humanité chez Wilhelm von Humboldt, August Boeckh et Heymann Steinthal’, in L’hellénisme de Wilhelm von Humboldt et ses prolongements européens, eds. Michel Espagne and Sandrine Maufroy, 47–70. Paris: Demopolis, Ecole française d’Athènes. 

Trautmann-Waller, Céline, ed. (2017) De la philologie allemande à l’anthropologie française. Les sciences humaines à l’EPHE (1868–1945). Paris: Honoré Champion. 

Zakai, Avihu (2017) Erich Auerbach and the Crisis of German Philology: The Humanist Tradition in Peril. Dordrecht: Springer. 

Davis, John R., and Angus Nicholls (2018) Friedrich Max Müller and the Role of Philology in Victorian Thought. Abingdon: Routledge. 

Touber, Jetze (2018) Spinoza and Biblical Philology in the Dutch Republic, 1660–1710. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

van Miert, Dirk (2018) The Emancipation of Biblical Philology in the Dutch Republic, 1500–1670. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Engberts, Christiaan, and Herman J. Paul, eds. (2019) Scholarly Personae in the History of Orientalism, 1870–1930. Leiden: Brill. 

Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg, and Rens Bod (2019) The Forgotten Curriculum of the Humanities’, History of Humanities 4, no. 2, pp. 219–27. 

Güthenke, Constanze (2020) Feeling and Classical Philology: Knowing Antiquity in German Scholarship, 1770–1920. Classics after Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Marchand, Suzanne (2020) Weighing Context and Practices: Theodor Mommsen and the Many Dimensions of Nineteenth-Century Humanistic Knowledge’, History and Theory 59, no. 4, pp. 144–67. 

Trüper, Henning (2020) Orientalism, Philology, and the Illegibility of the Modern World. London: Bloomsbury. 

Conybeared, Catherine, and Simon Goldhill, eds. (2021) Classical Philology and Theology: Entanglement, Disavowal, and the Godlike Scholar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Harrison, Stephen, and Christopher Pelling, ed. (2021) Classical Scholarship and Its History. Trends in Classics – Scholarship in the Making 1. Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Kurtz, Paul Michael (2022) ‘A Historical, Critical Retrospective on Historical Criticism’, in New Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation, ed. Ian Boxall and Bradley C. Gregory, pp. 15–36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Diego, Lanza, and Gherardo Ugolini (2022) History of Classical Philology: From Bentley to the 20th Century, trans. Antonella Lettieri. Trends in Classics – Scholarship in the Making 2. Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Palmieri, Kris (2023) ‘The Forgotten Seminar: Friedrich Creuzer and Classical Philology as the University of Heidelberg, 1800–1830’, History of Humanities 8, no. 1, pp. 69–97. 


Homeric Question 

Turnbull, H.G.D. (1920–21) ‘The Homeric Question’, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 2, no. 2, pp. 143–53. 

Davidson, J.A. (1962) ‘The Homeric Question,’ in A Companion to Homer, ed. Alan J.B. Wace and Frank H. Stubbings, pp. 234–65. London: Macmillan. 

Simonsuuri, Kirsti (1979) Homer’s Original Genius: Eighteenth-Century Notions of the Early Greek Epic (1688–1798). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Jenkyns, Richard (1980) The Victorians and Ancient Greece. Oxford: Blackwell. 

Grafton, Anthony (1981) Prolegomena to Friedrich August Wolf’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 44, pp. 101–29. 

Turner, Frank M. (1981) The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain. New Haven: Yale University Press. 

Grafton, Anthony (1985) ‘Introduction’, in F.A. Wolf, Prolegomena to Homer, 1795, trans. and ed. Anthony Grafton, Glenn W. Most, James Zetzel, pp. 3–35. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Grafton, Anthony (1992) ‘Renaissance Readers of Homer’s Ancient Readers’, in Homer’s Ancient Readers: The Hermeneutics of Greek Epic’s Earliest Exegetes, ed. Robert Lamberton and John J. Kearney, pp. 149–72. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Nagy, Gregory (1992) ‘Homeric Questions’, 1991 Presidential Address, Transactions of the American Philological Association 122, pp. 17–60. 

Krischer, Tilman (1996) ‘Friedrich August Wolf’s Prolegomena ad Homerum und die neuere Homerforschung’, Poetica 28, no. 1–2, pp. 171–80. 

Wohlleben, Joachim (1996) Friedrich August Wolfs Prolegomena Ad Homerum in der literarischen Szene der Zeit’, Poetica 28, nos. 1–2, pp. 154–70. 

Turner, Frank M. (1996) ‘The Homeric Question’, in A New Companion to Homer, ed. Ian Morris and Barry Powell, Mnemosyne Supplements 163, pp. 123–45. Leiden: Brill. 

West, M.L. (1999) ‘The Invention of Homer’, The Classical Quarterly 49, no. 2, pp. 364–82. 

Osinski, Jutta. (2002) ‘Homer-Bilder im 19. Jahrhundert’, in Autorschaft: Positionen und Revisionen, ed. Heinrich Detering, pp. 202–19. Germanistische Symposien Berichtsbände. J.B. Metzler, Stuttgart. 

Vogt-Spira, Gregor (2002) ‘Warum Vergil statt Homer? Der frühneuzeitliche Vorzugsstreit zwischen Homer und Vergil im Spannungsfeld von Autorität und Historisierung’, Poetica 34, no. 3–4, pp. 323–44. 

Porter, James I. (2004) ‘Homer: the history of an idea’, in Cambridge Companion to Homer, ed. Robert Fowler, pp. 324–43. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Ford, Philip (2006) ‘Homer in the French Renaissance’, Renaissance Quarterly 59, no. 1, pp. 1–28. 

Ferreri, Luigi (2007) La questione omerica dal cinquecento al settecento. Pleiadi 10. Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura. 

Pontani, Filippomaria (2007) ‘From Budé to Zenodotus: Homeric Readings in the European Renaissance’, International Journal of the Classical Tradition 14, nos. 3–4, pp. 375–430. 

Kittler, Friedrich (2009) “Philologische und homerische Frage”, in Was ist eine philologische Frage? Beiträge zur Erkundung einer theoretischen Einstellung, ed. Jürgen Paul Schwindt, pp. 288-303. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. 

West, Martin (2011) ‘The Homeric Question Today’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 155, no. 4, pp. 383–93. 

Demetriou, Tania (2015) ‘The Homeric Question in the Sixteenth Century: Early Modern Scholarship and the Text of Homer’, Renaissance Quarterly 68, no. 2, pp. 496–557. 

Haugen, Kristine Louise (2020) ‘Homer in Early Modern Europe’, in The Cambridge Guide to Homer, ed. Corinne Ondine Pache, pp. 505–16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Porter, James I. (2023) Homer: The Very Idea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Theiss, William (2023) ‘The Abbé d’Aubignac’s Homer and the Culture of the Street in Seventeenth-Century Paris’, Journal of the History of Ideas 84, no. 1, pp. 77–102. 


Creuzer-Streit(Creuzer Affair) 

Howald, Ernst (1926) Der Kampf um Creuzers Symbolik. Eine Auswahl von Dokumenten, Tübingen: Mohr.  

Momigliano, Arnaldo (1946) ‘Friedrich Creuzer and Greek Historiography’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 9, pp. 152–63. 

Schlesier, Renate (1991–92) ‘Olympian Versus Chthonian Religion’, Scripta Classica Israelica: Yearbook of the Israel Society for the Promotion of Classical Studies 11, pp. 38–51 

Blok, Josine H. (1994) ‘Quests for a Scientific Mythology: F. Creuzer and K.O. Müller on History and Myth’, History and Theory 33, no. 4: 26–52. 

Kocziszky, Éva (1997) ‘Samothrake. Ein Streit um Creuzers Symbolik und das Wesen der Mythologie’, Antike und Abendland 43, pp. 174–89 

Marelli, Francesca (2000) Lo sguardo da Oriente: simbolo, mito e grecità in Friedrich Creuzer. Milan: LED. 

Fornaro, Sotera (2001) ‘Friedrich Creuzer und die Diskussion über Philologie und Mythologie zu Beginn des 19. Jhs.’, in Pontes 1. Akten der ersten Innsbrucker Tagung zur Rezeption der klassischen Antike, ed. Martin Korenjak and Karlheinz Töchterle, 28–42. Comparanda: Literaturwissenschaftliche Studien zu Antike und Moderne 2. Innsbruck: Studien Verlag. 

Blok, Josine H. (2003) ‘A Nation without a Country’, in The Impact of Classical Greece on European and National Identities. Proceedings of an International Colloquium, held at the Netherlands Institute at Athens, 2-4 October 2000, ed. M. Haagsma and P. den Boer, 117–36. Amsterdam: Gieben 

Borgeaud, Philippe (2006) ‘L’Orient des religions. Réflexion sur la construction d’une polarité, de Creuzer à Bachofen’, Archiv für Religionsgeschichte 8, pp. 153–62. 

Gabrielli, Tiziana (2006) ‘Sous le signe de Dionysos: Symbole, mythe et grécité chez Friedrich Creuzer’, Archives de Philosophie 69, no. 2, pp. 243–61. 

Engelhausen, Frank, Armin Schlechter, and Jürgen Paul Schwindt, ed. (2008) Friedrich Creuzer 1771–1858. Philologie und Mythologie im Zeitalter der Romantik. Begleitband zur Ausstellung in der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg, 12. Februar – 8. Mai 2008. Archiv und Museum der Universität Heidelberg 12. Ubstadt-Weiher: Verlag Regionalkultur. 

Jamme, Christoph (2008) ‘“Göttersymbole”: Friedrich Creuzer als Mythologe und seine philosophische Wirkung’, in 200 Jahre Heidelberger Romantik, ed. Friedrich Strack, pp. 487–98. Heidelberg: Springer. 

Fornaro, Sotera (2010) ‘Friedrich Creuzer (1771–1858) à l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres’, Flaubert. Revue critique et génétique 4 (digital).  

Fornaro, Sotera (2010) ‘Die Mythologie übersetzen. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Friedrich Creuzer und Gottfried Hermann,’ in Translating Antiquity. Antikebilder im europäischen Kulturtransfer, ed. Stefan Rebenich, Barbara von Reibnitz, and Thomas Späth, pp. 75–97. Basel: Schwabe. 

Fornaro, Sotera (2010) ‘Storia della religione antica tra XVIII e XIX secolo, tra Germania e Francia’, in Historiographie de l’antiquité et transferts culturels. Les histoires anciennes dans l’Europe des XVIIIe et XIXe siècles, ed. Chryssanthi Avlami, Jaime Alvar, and Mirella Romero Recio, pp. 255–63. Internationale Forschungen zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft 145. Leiden: Brill. 

Most, Glenn W. (2010), “Hermann gegen Creuzer über die Mythologie”, in Gottfried Hermann (1772–1848). Internationales Symposium in Leipzig, 11.-13. Oktober 2007, ed. Kurt Sier and Eva Wöckener-Gade, pp.165–79. Tübingen: Narr.  

Konaris, Michael (2011) ‘Apollo in Nineteenth-Century Scholarship: The Case of Karl Otfried Müller’, in Current Approaches to Religion in Ancient Greece: Papers Presented at a Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 17-19 April 2008, ed. Matthew Haysom and Jenny Wallenstein, pp. 13–21. Stockholm: Svenska Institutet i Athen. 

Germana, Nicholas A. (2019) ‘The Creuzerstreit and Hegel’s Philosophy of History’, Journal of the History of Ideas 80, no. 2, pp. 271–88. 


Sachphilologie vs. Wortphilologie (August Böckh vs. Gottfried Hermann) 

Hoffmann, Max (1901) August Böckh, Lebensbeschreibung und Auswahl aus seinem wissenschaftlichen Briefwechsel. Leipzig: Teubner.  

Schuchardt, Hugo. [1912] ‘Sachen und Wörter’, in Hugo Schuchardt-Brevier. EinVademecum der allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft, ed. Leo Spitzer. Darmstadt 1976[1928]: pp. 122–35. 

Vogt, Ernst (1979) ‘Der Methodenstreit zwischen Hermann und Böckh und seine Bedeutung für die Geschichte der Philologie’, in Philologie und Hermeneutik I. Zur Geschichte und Methodologie der Geisteswissenschaften, ed. H. Flashar, K. Gründer, and A. Horstmann, pp. 103–21. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 

La Penna, Antonio (1982) ‘Sugli inizi della filologia classica ‘positivistica’ in Germania’, in Scienza e filosofia nella cultura positivistica, ed. Antonio Santucci, pp. 427–45. Milan: Feltrinelli. 

Degani, Enzo (1999 ‘Filologia e storia’, Eikasmós 10, pp. 279–314. 

D’Alessio, Giovan Battista (1992), ‘August Böckh: tra filologia e filosofia’, Archivio di Storia della Cultura 5, pp. 127–153. 

Horstmann, Axel (1992), Antike Theoria und moderne Wissenschaft. August Boeckhs Konzeption der Philologie, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.  

Ungefehr-Kortus, C. (1999) ‘Böckh–Hermann–Auseinandersetzung, in Der Neue Pauly, vol. 13, Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte, ed. Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, and Manfred Landfester, 523–27. Stuttgart/Weimar: Brill. 

Medda, E. (2010) ‘Quid sit illud, quod regulam dicimus: Hermann e la critica inglese’, in Gottfried Hermann (1772–1848). Internationales Symposium in Leipzig, 11.-13. Oktober 2007, ed. Kurt Sier and Eva Wöckener-Gade, pp. 221–53. Tübingen: Narr 

Solaro, Giuseppe (2002) ‘L’esegesi secondo Hermann. Sul “De officio interpretis” (1834)’, Eikasmós 12, pp. 325–41. 

Citti, Vittorio (2007) ‘Filologia e filosofia tra Lipsia e Berlino’, in Con gli occhi degli antichi. Filologia e politica nelle stagioni della cultura europea, Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi (Palermo-Agrigento, 27–29 settembre 2006), ed. Gianfranco Nuzzo, pp. 73–93. Palermo: La Tipolitografica.  

Liberman, Gauthier (2010) ‘Hermann et la colométrie pindarique de Boeckh. Révolution et contrerévolution en métrique’, in Gottfried Hermann (1772–1848). Internationales Symposium in Leipzig, 11.-13. Oktober 2007, ed. Kurt Sier and Eva Wöckener-Gade, pp. 197–219. Tübingen: Narr 

Poiss, Thomas (2010) ‘Die Idee der Philologie. Der Streit zwischen Gottfried Hermann und August Boeckh’, in Gottfried Hermann (1772–1848). Internationales Symposium in Leipzig, 11.-13. Oktober 2007, ed. Kurt Sier and Eva Wöckener-Gade, pp. 143–63. Tübingen: Narr. 

Hackel, Christiane, and Sabine Seifert, ed. (2013) August Boeckh. Philologie, Hermeneutik und Wissenschaftspolitik (Berliner Intellektuelle um 1800, 3). Berlin: Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag. 

Poletti, Laiza (2021) ‘Gottfried Hermann’s Laboratory: Meaning and Methods in Early Nineteenth-Century Classical Scholarship’, PhD thesis, University of Oxford. 


Documentary Hypothesis  

Kraus, Hans-Joachim (1969) Geschichte der historisch-kritischen Erforschung des Alten Testaments. 2nd ed. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag. 

Thompson, R. J. (1970) Moses and the Law in a Century of Criticism since Graf. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 19. Leiden: Brill.  

Rogerson, John (1984) Old Testament Criticism in the Nineteenth-Century: England and Germany. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 

Reventlow, Henning Graf (2001) Epochen der Bibelauslegung, vol. 4, Von der Aufklärung bis zum 20. Jahrhundert. Munich: Beck. Translated by Leo G. Perdue as History of Biblical Interpretation, vol. 4, From the Enlightenment to the Twentieth Century. Society of Biblical Literature Resources for Biblical Study 50. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2010. 

Van Seters, John (2006) The Edited Bible: The Curious History of the ‘Editor’ in Biblical Criticism. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. 

Kugel, James (2007) How to Read the Bible: A Gude to Scripture, Then and Now. New York: Free Press.  

Shavit, Yaacov, and Mordechai Eran (2007) The Hebrew Bible Reborn: From Holy Scripture to the Book of Books, A History of Biblical Culture and the Battles over the Bible in Modern Judaism, trans. Chaya Naor. Studia Judaica 38. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2007. 

Sæbø, Magne, ed. (2013) Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation, Vol. 3.1, The Nineteenth Century – A Century of Modernism and Historicism. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 

Kurtz, Paul Michael (2018) Kaiser, Christ, and Canaan: The Religion of Israel in Protestant Germany, 1871–1918, Forschungen zum Alten Testament I/122. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. 


Babel-Bibel-Streit (Babel-Bible Affair) 

Smith, Jonathan Z. (1982) Imagining Religion: From Babylon to Jonestown. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Huffmon, Herbert B. (1983) ‘Babel und Bibel: The Encounter Between Babylon and the Bible’, Michigan Quarterly Review 22, no. 3, pp. 309–20. 

Johanning, Klaus (1988) Der Bibel-Babel-Streit: Eine forschungsgeschichtliche Studie. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. 

Lehmann, Reinhard G. (1994) Friedrich Delitzsch und der Babel-Bibel-Streit. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 133. Freiburg: Universitätsverlag / Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 

Larsen, Mogens Trolle (1995) ‘The ‘Babel/Bible’ Controversy and Its Aftermath’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack M. Sasson, 2 vols., pp. 1:95–106. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 

Arnold, Bill T. and David B. Weisberg (2002) ‘A Centennial Review of Friedrich Delitzsch’s ‘Babel und Bibel’ Lectures’, Journal of Biblica Literature 121, no. 3, pp. 441–57. 

Gold, Daniel (2003) Aesthetics and Analysis in Writing on Religion: Modern Fascinations. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Shavit, Yaacov, and Mordechai Eran (2007) The Hebrew Bible Reborn: From Holy Scripture to the Book of Books, A History of Biblical Culture and the Battles over the Bible in Modern Judaism, trans. Chaya Naor. Studia Judaica 38. Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Arnold, Bill T., and David B. Weisberg (2004) ‘Delitzsch in Context’, in God’s Word for Our World: Theological and Cultural Studies in Honor of Simon John De Vries, ed. J. Harold Ellens, Deborah L. Ellens, Rolf P. Knierim, and Isaac Kalimi, 2 vols., pp. 2:388–89; London: T&T Clark International. 

Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva, and Thomas L. Gertzen, ed. (2021) Der Babel-Bibel-Streit und die Wissenschaft des Judentums. Beiträge einer internationalen Konferenz vom 4. bis 6. November 2019 in Berlin. Investigatio Orientis 6. Münster: Zaphon. 


Mahābhārata and Bhagavad-gītā 

Marchignoli, S. (2004) ‘Canonizing an Indian Text? A.W. Schlegel, W. von Humboldt, Hegel and Bhagavad-Gītā”, in Sanskrit and Orientalism, Indology and Comparative Linguistics in Germany, 1750–1958, ed. Douglas T. McGetchin, Peter K.J. Park, and Damodar Sar Desai, New Delhi.  

Herling, B. L. (2006) The German Gītā. Hermeneutics and Discipline in the German Reception of Indian Thought, 1778–1831. New York: Routledge.  

Adluri, Vishwa (2013) ‘The Redemption of the Brahman: Garbe and German Interpreters of the Gītā’, in Transcultural Encounters between Germany and India: Kindred Spirits in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, ed. Joanne Miyang Cho, Eric Kurlander, and Douglas T. McGetchin, pp. 68–83. New York: Routledge. 

Davis, Richard H. (2015) The Bhagavad Gita. A Biography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.  

Adluri, Vishwa (2018) Philology and Criticism: A Guide to Mahābhārata Textual Criticism. London: Anthem. 



Duggan, Joseph J. (1989), ‘Franco-German Conflict and the History of French Scholarship on the Song of Roland’, in Hermeneutics and Medieval Culture, ed. O. J. Gallacher & H. Damico, pp. 97–106. New York: State University of New York Press. 

Redman, Jr., Harry (1991) The Roland legend in nineteenth-century French literature. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. 

Van Dijk, Hans (1997) ‘Le “Roelantslied” moyen-néerlandais et ses relations avec le “Chanson de Roland” et le “Roelandslied”’, in ‘Chanson de Roland’ und ‘Rolandslied’. Actes du Colloque du Centre d’Etudes Médiévales de l’Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 11 et 12 Janvier 1996, ed. B. Silkens, pp. 137-144. Greifswalder Beiträge zum Mittelalter 57 / Wodan. Recherches en littérature médiévale 70. Greifswald: Reineke. 

Brandsma, Frank (2001) ‘Het “Chanson de Roland”: Van vondst tot nationaal epos’, in De Middeleeuwen in de negentiende eeuw, ed. R.E.V. Stuip & C. Vellekoop, pp. 155–68. Hilversum: Verloren. 

Taylor, Andrew (2001) ‘Was there a Song of Roland?’ Speculum 76, no. 1, pp. 28–65. 

Bastert, Bernd (2010), Helden als Heilige: Chanson de geste-Rezeption im deutschsprachigen Raum. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto Verlag. 

Warren, Michelle R. (2010) Creole Medievalism: Colonial France and Joseph Bédier’s Middle Ages. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

DiVanna, Isabel N. (2011) ‘Politicizing national literature: The scholarly debate around La chanson de Roland in the nineteenth century’, Historical Research 84, no. 223, pp. 109–34. 

Lucken, Christopher (2018), ‘Traduire la chanson de Roland’, Médiévales 75, no. 2, pp. 167–96. 



Wiley, Raymond A. (1990) ‘Grimm’s Grammar Gains Ground in England, 1832–1852’, in The Grimm Brothers and the Germanic Past, ed. Elmer H. Antonsen, James W. Marchand, and Ladislav Zgusta, pp. 33–42. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 

Shippey, T.A., and Andreas Haarder, ed. (1998) Beowulf: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge. 

Liuzza, R.M. (2002) ‘Lost in Translation: Some Versions of Beowulf in the Nineteenth Century’, English Studies 83, no. 4, pp. 281–95. 

Jurasinski, Stefan (2006), ‘Jakob Grimm, Legal Formalism and the Editing of Beowulf’, in Ancient Privileges: Beowulf, Law, and the Making of Germanic Antiquity, ed. Stefan Jurasinski, pp. 49–78. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press 

Scheil, Andrew (2008) ‘The Historiographic Dimensions of Beowulf’, The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 107, no. 3, pp. 281–302. 

Shippey, Tom (2008) ‘The Case of Beowulf’, in Editing the Nation’s Memory: Textual Scholarship and Nation-building in Nineteenth-Century Europe, ed. Dirk van Hulle and Joseph Theodoor Leerssen, pp. 223–40. European Studies 26. Amsterdam: Rodopi.  

Bremmer, Rolf H. (2016) ‘Tolkien and Beowulf: On J.C. van Meurs’s Contribution to Neophilologus’, in  Tracing Paradigms: One Hundred Years of Neophilologus, ed. Rolf H. Bremmer et al., pp. 247–53. New York: Springer. 

Neidorf, Leonard (2016) ‘Philology, Allegory, and the Dating of Beowulf’, Studia Neophilologica 88, no. 1, pp. 97–115. 



Bohning, Elizabeth E. (1955) ‘The Nibelungenlied in 19th Century American Periodicals’, German Quarterly 28, no. 1, pp. 14–18. 

Ehrismann, Otfrid (1975) Das Nibelungenlied in Deutschland. Studien zur Rezeption des Nibelungenlieds von der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Munich: Fink. 

Hoffmann, Werner (1982) ‘Forschungsgeschichte und Forschungsstand’, in Das Niebelungenlied pp. 1–37. Sammlung Metzler 7. Stuttgart: Metzler. 

Ehrismann, Otfrid (1986), Nibelungenlied 1755-1920. Regesten und Kommentare zu Forschung und Rezeption. Beitrage zur deutschen Philologie 62. Giessen: Schmitz. 

Ehrismann, Otfrid (1987) Nibelungenlied. Epoche, Werk, Wirkung. Arbeitsbücher zur Literaturgeschichte. Munich: Beck. 

Kolk, Rainer (1990) Berlin oder Leipzig? Eine Studie zur sozialen Organisation der Germanistik im ‘Nibelungenstreit’. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 

Heinzle, Joachim, and Anneliese Waldschmitt, ed. (1991) Die Nibelungen, ein deutscher Wahn, ein deutscher Alptraum. Studien und Dokumente zur Rezeption des Nibelungenstoffs im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. 

Oergel, Maike (1998), The Return of King Arthur and the Nibelungen: National Myth in Nineteenth-Century English and German Literature. European Cultures 10. Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Leerssen, Joep (2014) “Het Nibelungenlied, de Ring en de Duitse identiteit”, R. Helmers & P. Westbroek eds., Conflict en Compassie: 200 jaar Richard Wagner: pp. 125-132. Amsterdam: Nationale Opera & Ballet. 


The ‘Lachmann’ Method 

Timpanaro, Sebastiano (2005) The Genesis of Lachmann’s Method, ed. and trans. Glenn W. Most. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Ginzburg, Carlo (2004). ‘Family Resemblances and Family Trees: Two Cognitive Metaphors’, Critical Inquiry 30, pp. 537–57. 

Engelstein, Stefani. Sibling Action: The Genealogical Structure of Modernity. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Mansfeld, Jaap (1998), ‘Doxographical Studies, Quellenforschung, Tabular Presentation and Other Varieties of Comparativism’, in Fragmentsammlungen philosophischer Texte der Antike – Le raccolte dei frammenti di filosofi antichi’. Atti del Seminario Internazionale. Ascona, Centro Stefano Franscini, 22–27 Settembre 1996, ed. Walter Burckert et al., pp. 16–40. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 

Uschmann, Georg (1967) ‘Zur Geschichte der Stammbaum-Darstellungen’, in Gesammelte Vorträge über modern Probleme der Abstammungslehre, ed. Manfred Gersch, 2 vols., pp. 2:9–30. Jena, Fischer. 

Bleuler, Anna Kathrin, and Oliver Primavesi, ed. (2022). Lachmanns Erbe. Editionsmethoden in klassicher Philologie und germanistischer Mediävistik. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie 19. Berlin: Schmidt. 


Zend Avestā and Zaraϑuštra 

Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (1958) The Western Response to Zoroaster. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Stausberg, Michael (1998) Faszination Zarathustra: Zoroaster und die europäische Religionsgeschichte der frühen Neuzeit, 2 vols. Berlin: de Gruyter. 

Rose, Jenny (2000) The Image of Zoroaster. The Persian Mage Through European Eyes. New York: Bibliotheca Persica Press. 

Kellens, Jean (2002) ‘Réflexions sur la datation de Zoroastre’, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 26, pp. 14–28. 

Hintze, Almut (2015) ‘Zarathustra’s Time and Homeland: Linguistic Perspectives’, inThe Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, ed. M. Stausberg and Y. Vevaina with Anna Tessmann, pp. 31–38. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Kaplan, Judith R. H. (2015) ‘Avestan studies in Imperial Germany: Sciences of Text and Sound’, History of the Human Sciences 28, no. 1, pp. 25–43. 

Marchand, Suzanne (2016) ‘Dating Zarathustra: Oriental Texts and the Problem of Persian Prehistory, 1700–1900’, Erudition and the Republic of Letters 1, no. 1, pp. 203–45. 

Jenkins, Jennifer (2022), ‘Excavating Zarathustra: Ernst Herzfeld’s Archaeological History of Iran’, Iranian Studies 45, no. 1, pp. 1–27.